This presentation examines how the different dimensions of the crisis have impacted on the EU’s main political actors and policy processes. It shows there have been three main effects. First, the powers of and the influence exercised by the EU’s institutional actors have been partially re-shaped during the crisis. Second, the crisis has brought out and exacerbated deep-lying differences between the EU’s main non-institutional actors – the member states –– on key policy issues. Third, the crisis has shown how the EU still has a major leadership problem, with it often not being clear during the crisis who or what should be providing leadership, and when it has been provided it has often been contested.
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