Much of what the Lisbon Treaty had to say about EU external relations aimed at tackling vertical and horizontal coherence in EU foreign policy. The strengthening of the HR/VP post, the creation of the EEAS and the solidarity clause were all aimed at providing a governance system that was better able to deliver political cohesion (vertical coherence) and a single focus to the EU instruments (horizontal coherence). However, a key challenge has remained in the EU foreign policy governance system, namely 'diagonal' coherence, i.e. between the discourse embraced in Brussels and policy implementation on the ground. Beefed up EU Delegations have increased their ties with national representatives in non-member countries, but this has tended to create a 'local' governance system that is separate from the governance system in Brussels. This point will be illustrated by analysing the relationship between EU Delegations in the Mediterranean, on one hand, and the EEAS and the Commission, on the other.
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