Schengen in the Fading EU: Mobility and Security as Challenges to European Integration

Artur Gruszczak

The migrant crisis in the European Union has evoked a common feeling of uncertainty and anxiety in the face of massively flocking 'aliens'. The policy of openness, epitomized by the free movement of persons within the Schengen area, has been subject to an increasing criticism and pressure from natonalist-oriented governments of the member states. The crisis contributed to the rebirth of the old divide between the classical formula of the sovereign nation-state and the neofunctionalist construction of 'borderless Europe'.The present paper seeks to address the issue of tensions within the Schengen area in the context of the Schengen regime as â€┼ża hybrid system of governance consisting of a mix of supranational and intergovernmental features" (Zaiotti 2011). The process of weakening Schengen governance and reintroducing internal border controls is analysed as a side effect of hybridness embedded in the logic of liberalisation of cross-border movement of persons and goods. It is also considered as a factor contributing to the fading of European integration process, especially when the weakening dynamics of Schengen reform process is taken into account.The main thesis developed throughout this paper is that Schengen has been marked since its practical inception by the inherent contradictory logic of inclusion and exclusion as regulatory mechanisms of mobility and security.

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