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Citizenship as Europeanization, Europeanization as Citizenship: Challenges, Opportunities, and Realities of a European post-National Political Space and the Question of the Integration of European Roma, Sinti, and Traveller Communities

F. Peter Wagner

Citizenship has become one of the central categories in the study of European integration today, even beyond theinstitutional and geographic confines of the EU. Yet its very centrality is derived from the controversy andquestions that surround the process of European integration as a process (and product) wedged and at times tornbetween post-national commitments and continuing national prerogatives. The proposed paper will argue that therecent (but in fact: old) controversy about the rights of residency and free movement for the Roma, Sinti, andTraveller communities within the EU area is exemplary of the institutional and political tensions that characterizethe notion of a citizenship beyond national borders. Two interrelated hypotheses will be examined: 1) the memberstates of the EU and the Council of Europe increasingly are confronted with the existence of a post-nationaldefinition of 'citizenship' that is being created by the processes of European integration and is being propagatedand defended by European-level organizations and actors; 2) European integration has provided the Roma, Sinti,and Traveller communities in Europe with an opportunity to organize around the development/ideal of a Europeancitizenship at the European (EU, Council of Europe) level, which is beginning to empower them and provide themwith a new sense of a common identity and purpose. The proposed paper will not only deepen some earlier work,but also present some (preliminary) results of interviews and additional research conducted in Brussels(Commission, civil society groups) and Strasbourg (EP, Council of Europe) in May/June 2011.

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