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Chaos or Consolidation - the way to ESA

Thomas Hoerber

Before the Foundation of the European Space Agency (ESA) in 1975, Europe had only several national space programmes. Specialised space organisations such as the European Launcher Development Organisation had been founded, but were lacking in the more general remit the USA was demanding in the context of the post-Apollo programme. This paper will analyse the way to ESA and British and French motivation for or against ESA. Finally it will draw a conclusion on the impact of ESA on European integration and where that might lead in the future.

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