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Confrontation or Accommodation? European Policies towards 'Rogue States'

Wolfgang Wagner, Michal Onderco

The appropriate policy towards so-called 'rogue states', i.e. regimes whose defining feature is the violation ofinternational norms, has been among the most divisive issues in European foreign policy making. Whereas someEU member states prefer a confrontational approach to states like Iran and North Korea, others plea for a moreaccomodating policy. This paper argues that EU member states' policies towards 'rogue states' are heavilyinfluenced by domestic cultures of control because the problem of recurrent violations of community norms asposed by renegade regimes to the international community is similar to the problem posed by criminals indomestic society. Thus, states with a retributive culture of control follow a confrontational policy towards renegaderegimes, fed by a 'criminology of the other' that is based on the assumption that certain criminals are simply eviland therefore intrinsically different from the rest of community. In contrast, states with a 'penal-welfarist' or'rehabilitative' culture of control follow a more accomodationist policy, aiming at the resocialisation of the renegadeinto the community. To control for additional influences on policies towards 'rogue states', the paper alsoexamines the impact of commercial interests and of the lobbying activities of ethnic identity groups.

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