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Europe in Denmark - Denmark in Europe: Processes of Europeanisation and 'Denmarkisation' since 1972

Thorsten B Olesen

In the period 1972 to 2000 Denmark conducted six referendums on its involvement in the process of European integration. Four of the referendums produced a Yes to accession and further integration while the remaining two resulted in a No. The Danish approach of using referendums, of claiming op-outs after No's and of setting up parliamentary controls to check government policy in Brussels has set an example exported to many other countries. In this light one may claim that the EU to a certain degree has become 'denmarkized'. On the other hand, the forty years of membership of the EC/EU has also Europeanized Denmark and Danish society to a degree rarely recognized in public discourse. The paper will investigate and discuss this two-faced aspect of the Danish membership experience.



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