Structural diplomacy refers to the process of dialogue and negotiation by which actors in the international system seek to influence or shape sustainable external political, legal, economic, social and security structures in a given geographic space. A crucial factor in the respect is the extent to which endogenous (f)actors and contexts are taken into account in the conduct of this structural diplomacy. This paper, which is based on extensive field research by the authors in Kosovo and the DR Congo, analyses the actors, the patterns and the processes of EU structural diplomacy and explores the capacity of the EU to conduct a structural diplomacy towards these countries, deploying in both cases a wide array of its external relations instruments. The central question throughout this paper is to what extent the EU conducts a structural diplomacy that is adapted to the endogenous realities of (1) Kosovo and (2) the DR Congo?
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