The European Union is not Europe; Europe is not the European Union. Yet while that much appears to be uncontroversial, what delineates the space called 'Europe' and how that space in turn relates to the EU are very much at issue today. The paper will argue that the idea of citizenship provides a powerful and attractive way to reframe the question of a 'European identity' in terms of 'Europe' as a specific historical-normative project both within and beyond the confines of the EU. To this end, the paper will link the discourses and analyzes of 'citizenship' and 'Europeanization' that have developed alongside EU-European integration. In examining the relationship between citizenship and membership (How or to what extent does citizenship exist in the EU? How or to what extend is the idea of citizenship a membership criterion and thereby influences the creation of a EU/rest-European borderline?), the paper will demonstrate the considerable 'spill-over' impact the idea of citizenship has both inside and outside the EU. Thus, the paper concludes, citizenship as Europeanization and Europeanization as citizenship cut across and link various organizational expressions of European cooperation and integration today (from EU, OSCE to minority groups) and thereby provide a dynamic foundation for the creation of a European identity beyond the presently existing organizational confines.
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