Research on the democratic control of European policies has mainly focused on the EU's first pillar whereas the Common Foreign and Security Policy has received only scant attention. This is because there has been a venerable tradition in political theory, which applies different standards of democratic control to domestic policies on the one hand, and foreign policies on the other. However, this paper questions this tradition and argues that the democratic control of security policy should rather be regarded as a fundamental achievement of civilizing and democratizing the state. On that basis, the paper explores different ways of enhancing democratic control of European security politics. The paper first outlines three general models of democracy under conditions of denationalization and then focuses on parliaments in particular that play a highly important role in enabling citizens to exert such democratic control. The three models of democracy under conditions of denationalization translate into national, supranational and transnational parliamentary control. The paper goes on to discuss what each of these three levels of parliamentary control can contribute to the democratic control of European security policy.
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