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The Securitisation of the Eastern Borders of the European Union: Walls or Bridges?

Artur Gruszczak

The eastern enlargement of the European Union widened the territorial dimension of the process of European integration. Yet it also brought the Union much closer to the 'troubled areas' in the East and South-East of Europe seen traditionally as sources of instability, ethnic and religious violence, drug trafficking as well as human trafficking and illegal migration. As a sort of response, the European Union put a growing emphasis on securitisation of its external borders and modeling its external environment through cooperation and partnership. Externalization of EU justice and home affairs – often identified with 'schengenisation' - was the result of extending EU internal security governance beyond the member states in search of greater stability, predictability of the external environment and security.The basic questions examined in the paper is: How to reconcile the functioning of inward-looking, state-centric, exclusionary model of EU security governance with the necessity to develop multi-level, inclusionary, cooperative framework for diffusion of security patterns and reinforcement of policy transfers outside the EU? Does security diffusion in the context of EU security governance stimulate cooperation with external partners or it is seen as a form of pressure and mechanism of conditionality? Does the unfolding process of safeguarding the European Union bring about new divisions across Europe?



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