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Differentiated Integration, Turkey and the European Union - Chance for the Accession or Alternative Form of Close Relations?

Adam Szymanski, Agnieszka K. Cianciara

There are many interesting processes taking place in the EU nowadays. One of them is the development of the phenomenon of differentiated integration, including the emerging division into the core and circles (or centre and peripheries). The process has gained in political weight when the Member States started to look for the ways out of the euro crisis and the Brexit issue became a reality. The differentiation dynamics points to the inadequacy of conceiving EU the membership in binary (zero - one) terms. In this context, the differentiated integration seems to constitute an opportunity for the stalled enlargement policy, especially when it comes to Turkey. The aim of the paper is to analyze this issue and answer the following questions: What are the possible models of the differentiated integration with reference to the EU and its neighborhood? Is the EU membership of Turkey possible in the case of implementation of one of these models? If not, what are alternative forms of Turkey-EU relations which may be implemented then? Can the old proposals be refreshed and adjusted to the current situation or is it the time for new ideas, acceptable and beneficial for both the EU and Turkey nowadays?

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