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The American Press Discourse on European Union at the End of WWII: A First Bipolarisation in Europe?

Maria Obieta

Linked to the Truman Doctrine for post-war Europe, in a June 1947, during a speech addressed at Harvard University, Secretary of State George C.Marchall issued a call for a program to rebuild Europe. Grounded in the fear of Communist expansion and the rapid deterioration of European economies in the winter of 1946-1947, American Congress approved a funding for reconstructing Western Europe on the basis of a free market economy.The Marshall plan helped European industrialization, brought extensive investment into the region and stimulated the U.S. economy by establishing markets for American goods. The Plan was opened to the entire European continent,but the Soviet concern about potential U.S. economic domination over its Eastern European satellites and Stalin's unwillingness to open up his secret society doomed the idea.So the Marshall Plan was applied solely to Western Europe with one strong commitment: all Western European participant nations ought to agree among them on the terms and quantities of the distribution of the American aid. This pre-condition prepared the political and ideological scenario for the later European split into two opposite influencial areas: Western and Eastern Europe; but also forced European nations to sit, talk and agree upon an issue on over-nation particular interest. Thus, can the Marshall Plan be considered as the first step on the construction of European Union?, has European Union priorizised economics thanks or because of the Marshall Plan?, how did American press depict all this process?, which was the discourse of some of its most famous newspapers? This paper seeks to discuss that some of the problems of the EU today could be due to the first decisions taken, but also that the real and productive seeds of the union of Europe could be traced back to the consequences of the implementation of the Marshall Plan.

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